What is Chronic bronchitis?

Chronic bronchitis is a disease characterised by the reduction of expiratory flow during forced expiration and it is typified by a phlegmy cough with mucus usually being a greenish yellow.

Other symptoms are shortness of breath, blueing of the skin due to low oxygen supply and headaches due to unusually high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood that could not be expelled from the lungs.

It is an inflammatory process that affects the airway and that results from an increase in the activity of oxidative aggressors and a decrease in antioxidant activity. A common cause is smoking tobacco, that locally generates many free radicals, producing harmful substance. Oxidative stress increases mucus secretion, produces substances that alter ciliary function, inhibits the immune function of the lungs. It has been shown that there is a dose-dependent relationship between the consumption of tobacco and the damage present in the lining of the lungs.

Air pollutants that exacerbate chronic bronchitis are frequently found in industrial areas with high air pollution, as well as in workers exposed to harmful gases and organic and inorganic dust.

Which mushrooms have useful properties for chronic bronchitis?

The fungi selected for the treatment of bronchitis must have anti-inflammatory, lung tissue regenerating, bronchodilatory and inhibiting excessive mucus production.

Cordyceps Hifas da Terra

 Cordyceps

Reduces inflammation, promotes immune response and prevents aging of bronchial cells
In a study in asthmatic patients, the use of Cordyceps as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment shows a reduction in inflammation of the respiratory tract. Also, there is evidence of the positive effect of Cordyceps on the balance of the immune response through the respiratory epithelium.

These results explain the traditional use of Cordyceps in the treatment of respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD.

Preventively, Cordyceps can also decrease the aging of bronchial cells caused by exposure to cigarette smoke.

Reishi Hifas da Terra: useful properties

Reishi

Reduces inflammation, inhibits excessive mucus production and bronchoconstriction
It is also possible to reduce the inflammatory response thanks to the triterpenoids present in the Reishi extract. The anti-inflammatory activity of Reishi is comparable to the effects of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin or hydrocortisone. The treatment based on Reishi extract plays an essential role in the modulation of inflammatory responses, preventing its chronification.

Reishi also inhibits bronchoconstriction and excessive mucus production.

Polyporus Hifas da Terra

Polyporus

Draining and mucolytic capacity
Polyporus is a very interesting fungus for this pathology due to its tropism (lung), used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the pulmonary processes where there is an excess of moisture or mucus, it also helps eliminate toxins from the body and has anti-inflammatory activity.

Nutritional recommendations and general healthy habits for the maintenance of a good state of health

  • Have a varied diet.
  • Do not take foods that are too hot or too cold.
  • Consume water in abundance.
  • Avoid toxic environments and contaminated with smoke, tobacco …
  • Stroll through natural areas, parks … where you can breathe purer air without polluting.
  • Avoid meat products, especially red meat and derivatives such as sausages.
  • In general, you can not take baked goods or pastries.
  • You should also avoid the consumption of pre-cooked and dried fast-food type soup soups.
  • Avoid or reduce salt consumption to a minimum. When you consume it, choose preferably unrefined salt. You can substitute the garnishes of the meals with spices, for example.
  • To cook and dress your dishes, always use extra virgin olive oil, prioritizing its raw consumption.
  • Our advice is to take fatty or semi-fatty fish (blue fish) 2 to 3 times a week. Varies the fish: salmon, red mullet, sardines, horse mackerel, bonito, tuna, mackerel, anchovy, etc.
  • Increase the daily consumption of vegetables.
  • Do not drink alcohol.
  • Do not consume industrial processed products rich in sugars, salt, oils and additives that are harmful to health (cookies, toast, bread, industrial cereals …).
  • It prioritizes the consumption of whole grains and avoids refined flours (white bread, pasta, biscuits …).
  • The techniques of preparation of preference are: cooking, steaming or iron. Do not take fried, breaded, barbecued or barbecues.
  • It is important to perform some activity that improves breathing or lung function, deep breathing exercises, outdoors, yoga ..
  • Perform some relaxing activity such as meditation to regulate stress levels.
  • Eat seated and relaxed. Rest before and after meals especially in chronic diseases.

References

  1. Akihisa T, Nakamura Y, Tagata M, Tokuda H, Yasukawa K, Uchiyama E, Suzuki T, Kimura Y (2007) Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor-promoting effects of triterpene acids and sterols from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Chemistry & Biodiversity 4, 224-231.
  2. Alfageme Michavila I, Reyes Núñez N, Merino Sánchez M, Gallego Borrego J (2007) Fármacos anticolinérgicos. Anticholinergic agents. Archivos de Bronconeumología 43, 3-10.
  3. Dudhgaonkar S, Thyagarajan A, Sliva D (2009) Suppression of the inflammatory response by triterpenes isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. International Immunopharmacology 9, 1272-1280.
  4. Fung CK, Ko WH (2012) Cordyceps extracts and the major ingredient, cordycepin: possible cellular mechanisms of their therapeutic effects on respiratory disease. Capítulo 1 en Respiratory Diseases (ed.: M. Ghanei). InTech.
  5. Gengtao L, Tiantong B, Xinyi N, Shuzhen L, Xhenyu S (1979) Some pharmacological actions of the spores of Ganoderma lucidum and the micelium of Ganoderma capense (Lloyd) Teng cultivated by submerged fermentation. Chinese Medical Journal 92, 496-500.
  6. Habijanič J, Berovič M, Boh B, Plankl M, Wraber B (2015) Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum and the effects of its polysaccharides on the production of human cytokines TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17. New Biotechnology 32, 85-95.
  7. Kuo YC, Tsai WJ, Wang JY, Chang SC, Lin CY (2001) Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis. Life Science 68, 1067-1082.
  8. Liu A, Wu J, Li A, Bi W, Liu T, Cao L, Liu Y, Dong L (2016) The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 11, 1721-1731.
  9. Mishra RN, Upadhyay Y (2011) Cordiceps sinensis: the Chinese Rasayan- current research scenario. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2, 1503-1519.
  10. Paterson RRM (2008) Cordyceps – A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory. Phytochemistry 69, 1469-1495.
  11. Patocka J (1999) Anti-inflammatory triterpenoids from mysterious mushroom Ganoderma lucidum and their potential possibility in modern medicine. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 42, 123-125.
  12. Seth R, Haider SZ, Mohan M (2014) Pharmacology, phytochemistry and traditional uses of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc: a recent update for future prospects. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 13, 551-556.
  13. Stavinoha W, Satsangi N, Weintraub S (1995) Study of the antiinflammatory efficacy of Ganoderma lucidum. En: Kim B-K, Kim YS (Eds.). Recent Advances in Ganoderm lucidum Research. The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea, Seul, 3-7.
  14. Sun Y, Yasukawa K (2008) New anti-inflammatory ergostane-type ecdysteroids from the sclerotium of Polyporus umbellatus. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 18, 3417- 3420.
  15. Wang NQ, Jiang LD, Zhang XM, Li ZX (2007) Effect of dongchong xiacao capsule on airway inflammation of asthmatic patients. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 32 1566-1568.
  16. Yue GGL, Lau CBS, Fung KP, Leung PC, Ko WH (2008) Effects of Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps militaris and their isolated compounds on ion transport in Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 117, 92-101.

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